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Island Annexation

Unincorporated urban pockets (County islands) that are either completely or substantially surrounded by cities are a byproduct of the land use policies that existed in Napa County and other California Counties during the 1950s and 1960s. Little forethought was given by local governments as to the actual costs to the County that would result from maintaining these County islands.

The inefficient land use patterns that were developed over several decades have created public confusion over jurisdictional boundaries and service responsibilities. Napa LAFCO has adopted a Policy on Unincorporated Islandsthat clarifies which unincorporated areas meet the local definition of an "island" and thus qualify for the streamlined island annexation process explained below. There are currently 13 islands based on the adopted policy, all of which are located within the City of Napa's sphere of influence. Below is a table with more information about these 13 islands. Click the name of an island to view a zoomed in map of the island, which also shows the County General Plan land use designation(s) for the island.

Island NameSurrounded By City (%)Total AcresTotal ParcelsDeveloped ParcelsEstimated Population
West Pueblo / Linda Vista10087.45435381399
West Pueblo / West Park10010.1191847
Browns Valley / Kingston10014.8111026
West F / Solano1006.7131334
Terrace / Wyatt1001.66616
Terrace / Mallard1002.2338
Wilkins / Shetler1000.6225
Silverado / Saratoga1001.9113
Imola / Parrish9332.0212207538
Silverado / Stonecrest8223.6101026
Imola / Tejas715.3161642
Shurtleff / Hillside702.5325
Devita / Hilltop500.211 3
In Addition 

In addition, there are pockets of County land that are surrounded by a city but are not officially considered islands primarily due to the presence of prime agricultural land within them. These County pockets oftentimes share similar service issues as islands. However, they do not qualify for the streamlined island annexation process. Below is a map of all of these pockets:

May contain: chart, plot, map, atlas, diagram, and plan


It has been the experience of cities and counties throughout California that annexation of County islands have resulted in a more efficient urban service delivery system comprised of sewer; water; trash collection; police protection; fire protection; groundwater recharge; code enforcement; etc. Allowing islands to become part of a city has allowed residents to participate in the decisions that impact not only their immediate neighborhoods, but their communities.  

While the City of Napa, the County of Napa, and special districts have historically been able to provide a variety of services to unincorporated islands, services provided by the County in unincorporated areas are more typical of limited services to rural areas and do not cover the full range or level of services that many urban dwellers have come to expect. 

Recognizing the problems associated with the proliferation of County islands throughout the State, the California Legislature has enacted special legislation that allows cities to streamline the annexation of County islands (up to 150 acres) without protest or election.

Streamlined Island Annexation Process (Government Code §56375.3) 

The law provides that an "island annexation" initiated by a City must be approved by LAFCO and protest proceedings are waived if the following requirements are met:

  1. Annexation is proposed by resolution of the annexing city.
  2. The island is 150 acres or less in size.
  3. The island is surrounded or substantially surrounded by the annexing city or by the annexing city and adjacent cities.
  4. The island is not a gated community where services are currently provided by a community services district.
  5. The island is substantially developed or developing based on the availability of public utilities, presence of public improvements or the presence of physical improvements on the parcels within the area.
  6. The island is not prime agricultural land as defined in Government Code Section 56064.
  7. The island is receiving benefits from the annexing city or will benefit from the city.
  8. The island was not created after January 1, 2000.
Why Cities Annex Islands and Counties Support Such Action 

There are a number of reasons why cities throughout California desire to annex County islands that are located within their sphere of influence and urban service area. These include:

Consistent With City/County Land Use Policies 

Cities realize that island annexations are consistent with long-standing city and county land use regulations and policies that encourage growth and development to take place within cities where urban levels of services and facilities already exist and can be easily provided. Counties are not in the business of providing urban levels of services to urban areas. That is the role of the cities. 

It's the "Right Thing to Do" 

Most city officials feel that annexing islands that result in bringing new residents into the social fabric and political life of the city recognize that the island is in many ways already a part of the city, and annexation is basically the "right thing to do". It is consistent with a basic desire to "improve" the city. 

Inherent Inefficiencies of County Islands 

Scattered unincorporated "pockets" within the midst of cities have proven to be inefficient. Such inefficiencies are evident when two different departments, one city and one county, provide the same service to different portions of the same neighborhood and crisscross each other's territory on their way to provide such service(s). Significant effort is required in determining whether calls seeking assistance are coming from "city" as opposed to "county" residents.

County Island Impacts to Surrounding City Neighborhoods 

Often times islands are comprised of older residential neighborhoods that maintain aging infrastructure, housing stock in need of rehabilitation, and other problems. Since counties do not provide the same level and diversity of services for these residents, problems that may arise may not receive the same level of attention that a city may offer. Such neighborhood problems often have the potential for becoming worse rather than better. Cities realize that the best way to deal with such situations is by annexing the lands and dealing with problems through existing city programs.

Island Residents Use City Facilities But Often Don't Pay City Taxes 

Cities are often times concerned that County residents who live within island areas may be utilizing city streets and parks without paying for their use and upkeep. Also, cities may not receive the full benefit of additional state and federal funds that are allocated to cities on a per capita basis as long as residents reside within County islands.

Benefits of Annexing to a City 

Experience has proven that people just don't like change. They may ask "Why should we annex and what is to be gained by annexing that we don't currently have?" Good questions and here is some food for thought: 


Better Neighborhood Services 

One of the primary reasons for a city's existence is to provide neighborhood services and programs to persons living in urban areas. By comparison, counties were created to provide county-wide services including: public health and human services; law and justice services; assessor and tax collector services, voter services, library services; public administrator/guardian services; etc.  Counties were never envisioned to compete with cities in providing urban services to residential neighborhoods.

While it may be pointed out that counties do provide some urban level services to island areas, counties do not provide the same level or variety of neighborhood services as currently provided by cities. Also, counties throughout California indicate that they do not have the means to increase the level of services to existing County islands given current financial constraints placed upon them.

Political Empowerment 

An incentive to annexation is that residents will gain a greater ability to influence decisions related directly to their "quality of life" through working through their elected city representatives. As long as they continue to reside in a County island, they remain disenfranchised from those decisions. County residents do not have the right to vote in city council elections and other city elections. Consequently, when county residents attend city council meetings, their voices and opinions do not carry the same weight as if they were city residents. In addition, county residents oftentimes pay higher fees to participate in city recreation programs, and are not eligible for city scholarships. 

Dispelling Annexation Myths 

Myth #1:  Annexation Triggers Reassessment of Property (FALSE) 

Some people believe that if their property is annexed from the County into a city that the Assessor will automatically reassess its value for property tax purposes and that, as a result, their property taxes may increase dramatically. This is not true. 

Proposition 13 determines the conditions under which a property may be reassessed for property tax purposes, and annexation is not one of them. The assessed value of property remains the same following annexation. 

Myth #2:  City Taxes Are Much Higher than County Taxes (FALSE) 

Another common annexation myth is that taxes in a city are much higher than taxes in the unincorporated area. This is not true. 

The total taxes that a residential property owner would pay if their property were annexed are generally very similar to those they are already paying in the County. The most common difference between city and county taxes is that most cities have a utility tax and a county does not. The City of Napa has a storm drainage fee and a paramedic tax.

Overall annual costs to new city residents will likely be reduced due to lower water rates as shown in the table below (updated June 2022):

CategoryCity of NapaCountyDifference
Water Quantity Charge$411.30$587.70$176.40
Recycling & Waste Rate$704.52$701.88($2.64)
Storm Drainage Fee$12.00$0.00($12.00)
Paramedic Tax$90.00$0.00($75.00)
ANNUAL TOTAL$1,217.82$1,289.58$71.76

Myth #3:  Annexation Triggers Requirements to Install Sidewalks, Curbs, and Gutters (FALSE)

Some island property owners believe that they will have to install sidewalks, curbs, and/or gutters, and other improvements if they annex. This is not true. 

Most cities require that such facilities be installed only when there is substantial redevelopment of the property, and even then it may not be required if the property is not along a designated safe route to school or if it's in a neighborhood that generally does not have such facilities. 

Myth #4:  Annexation Affects School District Boundaries (FALSE) 

Some people believe that if they are annexed into a city that may change the school district they are in and the schools their children attend. This is not true. 

Annexation of property from a county into a city has no impact on school district boundaries or the schools that children in the annexed area attend.


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